Erdélyi protestáns énekköltészet a 16–17. században

Kis Juhász Vilmos: Erdélyi protestáns énekköltészet a 16–17. században. In: Református Szemle 100.4 (2007), 779-799. pp.

Hymnology in the 16–17th Century Reformed Church of Transylvania. The religious experience, the belief in God and in God’s power has always influenced the society. The 16th century’s reformation defined and still defines Europe’s and the world’s social, religious, political and economical aspect. There were radical changes on the fields of theology, literature, liturgy, in religious songs, printing, school system, and syllabus within it. The new teaching of the reformers needed a new form of worship which preserved some of the old elements, formed, recreated them according to his needs. This way the religious hymn in stanzas was born in people’s native language, so as the metrical psalms in native language and humanist metrical folk songs. Their Hungarian origins are the historical songs of the previous century, songs translated by Luther as German origin and the psalms propagated by Kálvin as French protestant source. The graduals of course (In Transylvania mainly the Öreg Graduál) transmitted the structure of the ancient liturgy but neglecting the non biblical thesis (e.g. the hymns of the saints). There were other influences in smaller extent such as the songs of the Morvian brothers and the creations of Unitarian authors. The new form of worship took over from the graduals the medieval hymns, antiphones, sequences and psalms. On the pattern of the historical songs the first biblical histories were written in the time of reformation. The majority of these deal with Old Testament themes, but we can find some stories of the apocryphal books. The best known authors are: Tinódi Lantos Sebestyén, Gosárvári Mátyás, Valkai András, Temesvári János, Temesvári István, Nagybánkai Mátyás, Görcsönyi Ambrus, Tőke Ferenc, Csanádi Demeter, Salánki György, Tardi György, Sztárai Mihály, Mádai Mihály, Szegedi András, Ilosvai Selymes Péter, Hunyadi Ferenc, and others. Their works were published in Kolozsvár and Debrecen in the publishing houses of Heltai, Hofgreff and Komlósi. The collections of historical songs published in the 16th century are: a Hoffgreff Cancionale, Cronica by Tinódi and Cancionale of Heltai. Besides the graduals the folk songs in native language became organic part of the worship. They are even more oftenly used at the influence of the puritan movement from the second half of the 16th century. In the hymnbooks of the time there are translated songs but original Hungarian works as well. The most significant songs were published in the hymnbook of Gálszécsi István, in the Hymnbook from Várad, and later in the Hymnbook form Debrecen. The nearly 40 publishing of this latter hymnbook defined the songrepertory of the Hungarian protestant churches of 16th and 17th century.